Network Fundamentals

Network fundamentals are like the ABCs of computer networks. They’re the basic rules and technologies that form the foundation of how data is sent, shared and kept safe in our connected world.

Here are the key features of Network Fundamentals:

  1. Protocols: Think of these as the instructions that decide how information travels through a network. Some examples are TCP/IP, HTTP, and SMTP.
  2. IP Addressing: In a network, each gadget gets a special ID called an IP address, making it easy to find. There are two main types: IPv4 and IPv6.
  3. Subnetting: Dividing an IP network into sub-networks helps with efficient use of IP addresses and better network management.
  4. Routing: Routers are devices that forward data packets between different networks, ensuring that data reaches its destination efficiently.
  5. Switching: Switches are used to connect devices within the same network. They operate at the data link layer and use MAC addresses for communication.
  6. Networking Devices: Apart from routers and switches, devices like hubs, bridges, and gateways play specific roles in network operations.
  7. OSI Model: The Open Systems Interconnection model breaks down network communication into seven layers, from physical transmission to application functions.
  8. Firewalls: These are security devices that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
  9. Wireless Networking: Wi-Fi is a common technology that enables devices to connect to a network without physical cables. It uses radio waves for communication.
  10. Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. Higher bandwidth allows for faster data transfer.
  11. Latency: The time it takes for data to travel from the source to the destination. Low latency is crucial for real-time applications.
  12. Security: Measures such as encryption, VPNs, and secure protocols are essential to protect data from unauthorized access and ensure the integrity of the network.